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  • 首页 >开发工具 >git > 正文

    git怎么解决合并冲突

    原创2022-06-24 15:18:43516 关注公众号:每天精选资源文章推送

    git解决合并冲突的方法:1、编辑有冲突的文件,并删除文件中的特殊符号,根据需求修改代码;2、将指定文件添加到暂存区,并将指定的分支提交到主干,执行提交即可,其中使用“git commit”命令时不能带文件名, 加文件名会报错。

    本文操作环境:Windows10系统、Git2.30.0版、Dell G3电脑。

    git怎么解决合并冲突

    git冲突

    多个分支代码合并到一个分支时,两个分支中修改了同一个文件,不管是什么地方修改,都会产生;

    还有一种 两个分支中修改了同一个文件的名称时会产生。

    原因

    合并分支时,两个分支在同一个文件有两套完全不同的修改。Git 无法替

    我们决定使用哪一个。必须人为决定新代码内容。

    解决方法

    编辑有冲突的文件,删除特殊符号,决定要使用的内容

    添加到暂存区

    执行提交(注意:此时使用 git commit 命令时不能带文件名, 加文件名会报错,成功提交后,merging消失)

    示例如下:

    1、冲突的产生

    1.1、主干分支代码

    在主干分支有两个文件

    main.cpp

    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <string.h>
    
    int main()
    {
    	char data[100] = "my branch name is master";
    	int length = strlen(data);
    	
    	for(int i = 0; i < length; i++)
    	{
    		printf("%c", data[i]);
    	}
    	
    	printf("branch master\n");
    	
    	return 0;
    }

    README.md

    this is master branch

    这个时候tom和jack分别拉取了主干分支的代码,并进行了修改。

    1.2、tom修改代码提交合并

    tom创建A分支并对文件做了以下修改

    main.cpp

    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <string.h>
    
    int main()
    {
    	char data[100] = "my branch name is A";
    	int length = strlen(data);
    	
    	for(int i = 0; i < length; i++)
    	{
    		printf("%c", data[i]);
    	}
    	
    	printf("branch AAA\n");
    	
    	return 0;
    }

    README.md

    this is AAA branch

    提交代码并合并到主干

    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/tom/kaol (A)
    $ git add .
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/tom/kaol (A)
    $ git commit -m "A分支代码提交"
    [A ccb2626] A分支代码提交
     2 files changed, 3 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/tom/kaol (A)
    $ git push origin A
    Enumerating objects: 7, done.
    Counting objects: 100% (7/7), done.
    Delta compression using up to 12 threads
    Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.
    Writing objects: 100% (4/4), 376 bytes | 376.00 KiB/s, done.
    Total 4 (delta 1), reused 3 (delta 1), pack-reused 0
    remote: Powered by GITEE.COM [GNK-6.2]
    remote: Create a pull request for 'A' on Gitee by visiting:
    remote:     https://gitee.com/lingpe/kaol/pull/new/lingpe:A...lingpe:master
    To https://gitee.com/lingpe/kaol.git
     * [new branch]      A -> A
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/tom/kaol (A)
    $ git checkout master
    Switched to branch 'master'
    Your branch is up to date with 'origin/master'.
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/tom/kaol (master)
    $ git merge A
    Updating 40c0115..ccb2626
    Fast-forward
     README.md | 2 +-
     main.cpp  | 4 ++--
     2 files changed, 3 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/tom/kaol (master)
    $ git push origin master
    Total 0 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
    remote: Powered by GITEE.COM [GNK-6.2]
    To https://gitee.com/lingpe/kaol.git
       40c0115..ccb2626  master -> master
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/tom/kaol (master)
    $

    1.3、jack修改代码提交合并

    jack对代码做了如下修改

    main.cpp

    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <string.h>
    
    int main()
    {
    	char data[100] = "my branch name is B";
    	int length = strlen(data);
    	
    	for(int i = 0; i < length; i++)
    	{
    		printf("%c", data[i]);
    	}
    	
    	printf("branch BBB\n");
    	
    	return 0;
    }

    README.md

    this is BBB branch

    提交代码并合并到主干

    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (B)
    $ git add .
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (B)
    $ git commit -m "B分支代码提交"
    [B bdcbe03] B分支代码提交
     2 files changed, 3 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (B)
    $ git push origin B
    Enumerating objects: 53, done.
    Counting objects: 100% (53/53), done.
    Delta compression using up to 12 threads
    Compressing objects: 100% (34/34), done.
    Writing objects: 100% (50/50), 4.66 KiB | 2.33 MiB/s, done.
    Total 50 (delta 16), reused 43 (delta 12), pack-reused 0
    remote: Powered by GITEE.COM [GNK-6.2]
    remote: Create a pull request for 'B' on Gitee by visiting:
    remote:     https://gitee.com/lingpe/kaol/pull/new/lingpe:B...lingpe:master
    To https://gitee.com/lingpe/kaol.git
     * [new branch]      B -> B
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (B)
    $ git checkout master
    Switched to branch 'master'
    Your branch is up to date with 'origin/master'.
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (master)
    $ git merge B
    Updating 40c0115..bdcbe03
    Fast-forward
     README.md | 2 +-
     main.cpp  | 4 ++--
     2 files changed, 3 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (master)
    $

    push时产生冲突

    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (master)
    $ git push origin master
    To https://gitee.com/lingpe/kaol.git
     ! [rejected]        master -> master (fetch first)
    error: failed to push some refs to 'https://gitee.com/lingpe/kaol.git'
    hint: Updates were rejected because the remote contains work that you do
    hint: not have locally. This is usually caused by another repository pushing
    hint: to the same ref. You may want to first integrate the remote changes
    hint: (e.g., 'git pull ...') before pushing again.
    hint: See the 'Note about fast-forwards' in 'git push --help' for details.
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (master)
    $

    2、解决冲突

    接下来就是如何解决冲突

    切换回B分支,然后拉取主干分支代码

    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (B)
    $ git pull origin master
    remote: Enumerating objects: 7, done.
    remote: Counting objects: 100% (7/7), done.
    remote: Compressing objects: 100% (3/3), done.
    remote: Total 4 (delta 1), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
    Unpacking objects: 100% (4/4), 356 bytes | 178.00 KiB/s, done.
    From https://gitee.com/lingpe/kaol
     * branch            master     -> FETCH_HEAD
       40c0115..ccb2626  master     -> origin/master
    Auto-merging main.cpp
    CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in main.cpp
    Auto-merging README.md
    CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in README.md
    Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.

    拉取失败,可以看到提示信息,告诉我们哪个文件产生了冲突。

    直接打开main.cpp文件,可以看到有以下特殊字符,提示我们哪一行代码产生了冲突。

    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <string.h>
    
    int main()
    {
    <<<<<<< HEAD
            char data[100] = "my branch name is B";
    =======
            char data[100] = "my branch name is A";
    >>>>>>> ccb26269f42245dfcbedfbf2218419c5ab7f2787
            int length = strlen(data);
    
            for(int i = 0; i < length; i++)
            {
                    printf("%c", data[i]);
            }
    
    <<<<<<< HEAD
            printf("branch BBB\n");
    =======
            printf("branch AAA\n");
    >>>>>>> ccb26269f42245dfcbedfbf2218419c5ab7f2787
    
            return 0;
    }

    直接在文件中手动解决冲突。删除文件中的特殊字符,然后根据需求修改代码。

    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <string.h>
    
    int main()
    {
            char data[100] = "my branch name is B and A";
            int length = strlen(data);
    
            for(int i = 0; i < length; i++)
            {
                    printf("%c", data[i]);
            }
    
            printf("branch BBB\n");
            printf("branch AAA\n");
            return 0;
    }
    ~

    同理,对README.md,手动解决冲突。

    this is BBB and AAA branch

    解决完冲突后提交到B分支

    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (B|MERGING)
    $ git add .
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (B|MERGING)
    $ git commit -m "解决冲突"
    [B f30e1ea] 解决冲突
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (B)
    $ git push origin B
    Enumerating objects: 10, done.
    Counting objects: 100% (10/10), done.
    Delta compression using up to 12 threads
    Compressing objects: 100% (3/3), done.
    Writing objects: 100% (4/4), 405 bytes | 405.00 KiB/s, done.
    Total 4 (delta 1), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
    remote: Powered by GITEE.COM [GNK-6.2]
    To https://gitee.com/lingpe/kaol.git
       bdcbe03..f30e1ea  B -> B
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (B)
    $

    最后将B分支合并到主干,就不会产生冲突了

    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (B)
    $ git checkout master
    Switched to branch 'master'
    Your branch and 'origin/master' have perged,
    and have 1 and 1 different commits each, respectively.
      (use "git pull" to merge the remote branch into yours)
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (master)
    $ git merge B
    Updating bdcbe03..f30e1ea
    Fast-forward
     README.md | 2 +-
     main.cpp  | 4 ++--
     2 files changed, 3 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (master)
    $ git push origin master
    Total 0 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
    remote: Powered by GITEE.COM [GNK-6.2]
    To https://gitee.com/lingpe/kaol.git
       ccb2626..f30e1ea  master -> master
    
    lng@DESKTOP-9TD21KL MINGW64 ~/Desktop/jack/kaol (master)
    $

    至此,冲突成功解决

    可以看下主干分支的代码

    main.cpp

    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <string.h>
    
    int main()
    {
    	char data[100] = "my branch name is B and A";
    	int length = strlen(data);
    	
    	for(int i = 0; i < length; i++)
    	{
    		printf("%c", data[i]);
    	}
    	
    	printf("branch BBB\n");
    	printf("branch AAA\n");
    	return 0;
    }

    README.md

    this is BBB and AAA branch

    OK

    推荐学习:《Git教程

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