首页 >运维 >linux运维 > 正文

一文详解Linux netfilter与VRF及其总结

转载2021-09-02 08:59:0201063

实验环境如下图所示:
e17dc4c8a80b12e1ef3bba4619548e2.png

配置如下:

#!/bin/bash
sudo ip netns add ns1 
sudo ip link add ns1veth1 type veth peer name eth0 netns ns1
sudo ip netns add ns2
sudo ip link add ns2veth1 type veth peer name eth0 netns ns2
sudo ip link set ns1veth1 master vrftest
sudo ip link set ns2veth1 master vrftest
sudo ip link set ns2veth1 up
sudo ip link set ns1veth1 up
sudo ip addr add 1.1.1.254/24 dev ns1veth1 
sudo ip addr add 2.2.2.254/24 dev ns2veth1 
sudo ip netns exec ns2 ip addr add 2.2.2.1/24 dev eth0 
sudo ip netns exec ns1 ip addr add 1.1.1.1/24 dev eth0 
sudo ip netns exec ns1 ip link set eth0 up
sudo ip netns exec ns1 ip link set lo up
sudo ip netns exec ns1 ip route add default via 1.1.1.254 dev eth0
sudo ip netns exec ns2 ip link set eth0 up
sudo ip netns exec ns2 ip link set lo up
sudo ip netns exec ns2 ip route add default via 2.2.2.254 dev eth0
sudo iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING   -s 1.1.1.1 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-prerouting" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A FORWARD      -s 1.1.1.1 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-forward" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A POSTROUTING  -s 1.1.1.1 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-postrouting" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING   -d 1.1.1.1 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-prerouting" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A FORWARD      -d 1.1.1.1 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-forward" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A POSTROUTING  -d 1.1.1.1 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-postrouting" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A INPUT        -d 1.1.1.1 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-localin" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A INPUT        -s 1.1.1.1 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-localin" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A OUTPUT       -s 1.1.1.1 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-localout" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A OUTPUT       -d 1.1.1.1 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-localout"

外网访问本机

ns1 ping 网关1.1.1.254

admin@ubuntu:~$ sudo ip netns exec ns1 ping 1.1.1.254 -c 1       
PING 1.1.1.254 (1.1.1.254) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 1.1.1.254: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.064 ms

--- 1.1.1.254 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.064/0.064/0.064/0.000 ms
admin@ubuntu:~$

查看log

Nov 20 20:34:10 ubuntu kernel: [180403.527204] vrf-test-preroutingIN=ns1veth1 OUT= MAC=b2:f8:2a:13:31:75:6e:17:d5:b2:55:14:08:00 SRC=1.1.1.1 DST=1.1.1.254 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=32492 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=33955 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:34:10 ubuntu kernel: [180403.527213] vrf-test-preroutingIN=vrftest OUT= MAC=b2:f8:2a:13:31:75:6e:17:d5:b2:55:14:08:00 SRC=1.1.1.1 DST=1.1.1.254 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=32492 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=33955 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:34:10 ubuntu kernel: [180403.527220] vrf-test-localinIN=vrftest OUT= MAC=b2:f8:2a:13:31:75:6e:17:d5:b2:55:14:08:00 SRC=1.1.1.1 DST=1.1.1.254 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=32492 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=33955 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:34:10 ubuntu kernel: [180403.527231] vrf-test-localoutIN= OUT=vrftest SRC=1.1.1.254 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=54845 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=33955 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:34:10 ubuntu kernel: [180403.527233] vrf-test-postroutingIN= OUT=vrftest SRC=1.1.1.254 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=54845 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=33955 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:34:10 ubuntu kernel: [180403.527235] vrf-test-localoutIN= OUT=ns1veth1 SRC=1.1.1.254 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=54845 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=33955 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:34:10 ubuntu kernel: [180403.527242] vrf-test-postroutingIN= OUT=ns1veth1 SRC=1.1.1.254 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=54845 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=33955 SEQ=1

从log可以看出:

请求报文经过的hook点顺序如下:

序号hook点输入接口输出接口
1PREROUTINGns1veth1
2PREROUTINGvrftest
3INPUTvrftest

应答报文经过的hook点顺序如下:

序号hook点输入接口输出接口
1OUTPUTvrftest
2POSTROUTINGvrftest
3OUTPUTns1veth1
4POSTROUTINGns1veth1

转发报文

ns1 ping ns2

admin@ubuntu:~$ sudo ip netns exec ns1 ping 2.2.2.1 -c 1
PING 2.2.2.1 (2.2.2.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 2.2.2.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=0.063 ms

--- 2.2.2.1 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.063/0.063/0.063/0.000 ms
admin@ubuntu:~$

查看log

Nov 20 20:28:31 ubuntu kernel: [180065.076713] vrf-test-preroutingIN=ns1veth1 OUT= MAC=b2:f8:2a:13:31:75:6e:17:d5:b2:55:14:08:00 SRC=1.1.1.1 DST=2.2.2.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=38312 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=33948 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:28:31 ubuntu kernel: [180065.076722] vrf-test-preroutingIN=vrftest OUT= MAC=b2:f8:2a:13:31:75:6e:17:d5:b2:55:14:08:00 SRC=1.1.1.1 DST=2.2.2.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=38312 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=33948 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:28:31 ubuntu kernel: [180065.076730] vrf-test-forwardIN=vrftest OUT=ns2veth1 MAC=b2:f8:2a:13:31:75:6e:17:d5:b2:55:14:08:00 SRC=1.1.1.1 DST=2.2.2.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=63 ID=38312 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=33948 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:28:31 ubuntu kernel: [180065.076732] vrf-test-postroutingIN= OUT=ns2veth1 SRC=1.1.1.1 DST=2.2.2.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=63 ID=38312 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=33948 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:28:31 ubuntu kernel: [180065.076746] vrf-test-preroutingIN=ns2veth1 OUT= MAC=02:25:0e:fe:52:35:ba:19:4d:37:ac:8b:08:00 SRC=2.2.2.1 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=47601 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=33948 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:28:31 ubuntu kernel: [180065.076749] vrf-test-preroutingIN=vrftest OUT= MAC=02:25:0e:fe:52:35:ba:19:4d:37:ac:8b:08:00 SRC=2.2.2.1 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=47601 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=33948 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:28:31 ubuntu kernel: [180065.076752] vrf-test-forwardIN=vrftest OUT=ns1veth1 MAC=02:25:0e:fe:52:35:ba:19:4d:37:ac:8b:08:00 SRC=2.2.2.1 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=63 ID=47601 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=33948 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 20:28:31 ubuntu kernel: [180065.076753] vrf-test-postroutingIN= OUT=ns1veth1 SRC=2.2.2.1 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=63 ID=47601 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=33948 SEQ=1

从log可以看出:

请求报文经过的hook点顺序如下:

序号hook点输入接口输出接口
1PREROUTINGns1veth1
2PREROUTINGvrftest
3FORWARDvrftestns2veth1
4POSTROUTINGns2veth1

应答报文经过的hook点顺序如下:

序号hook点输入接口输出接口
1PREROUTINGns2veth1
2PREROUTINGvrftest
3FORWARDvrftestns2veth1
4POSTROUTINGns2veth1

本机访问外网

vrftest ping 1.1.1.1

admin@ubuntu:~$ sudo ping 1.1.1.1 -I vrftest -c 1
ping: Warning: source address might be selected on device other than vrftest.
PING 1.1.1.1 (1.1.1.1) from 1.1.1.254 vrftest: 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 1.1.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.039 ms

--- 1.1.1.1 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.039/0.039/0.039/0.000 ms
admin@ubuntu:~$

查看log

Nov 20 21:21:11 ubuntu kernel: [183224.956734] vrf-test-localoutIN= OUT=vrftest SRC=1.1.1.254 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=35042 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=34186 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 21:21:11 ubuntu kernel: [183224.956740] vrf-test-postroutingIN= OUT=vrftest SRC=1.1.1.254 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=35042 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=34186 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 21:21:11 ubuntu kernel: [183224.956745] vrf-test-localoutIN= OUT=ns1veth1 SRC=1.1.1.254 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=35042 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=34186 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 21:21:11 ubuntu kernel: [183224.956746] vrf-test-postroutingIN= OUT=ns1veth1 SRC=1.1.1.254 DST=1.1.1.1 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=35042 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=34186 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 21:21:11 ubuntu kernel: [183224.956762] vrf-test-preroutingIN=ns1veth1 OUT= MAC=b2:f8:2a:13:31:75:6e:17:d5:b2:55:14:08:00 SRC=1.1.1.1 DST=1.1.1.254 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=323 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=34186 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 21:21:11 ubuntu kernel: [183224.956765] vrf-test-preroutingIN=vrftest OUT= MAC=b2:f8:2a:13:31:75:6e:17:d5:b2:55:14:08:00 SRC=1.1.1.1 DST=1.1.1.254 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=323 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=34186 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 21:21:11 ubuntu kernel: [183224.956769] vrf-test-localinIN=vrftest OUT= MAC=b2:f8:2a:13:31:75:6e:17:d5:b2:55:14:08:00 SRC=1.1.1.1 DST=1.1.1.254 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=323 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=34186 SEQ=1

从log可以看出:

请求报文经过的hook点顺序如下:

序号hook点输入接口输出接口
1OUTPUTvrftest
2POSTROUTINGvrftest
3OUTPUTns1veth1
4POSTROUTINGns1veth1

应答报文经过的hook点顺序如下:

序号hook点输入接口输出接口
1PREROUTINGns1veth1
2PREROUTINGvrftest
3INPUTvrftest

本机访问本机,即环回

vrftest ping vrf接口地址9.9.9.9/24

添加如下netfilter规则:

admin@ubuntu:~/vrftcpdump$ cat netfilter1.sh 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING   -s 9.9.9.9 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-prerouting" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A FORWARD      -s 9.9.9.9 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-forward" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A POSTROUTING  -s 9.9.9.9 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-postrouting"
sudo iptables -t mangle -A INPUT        -s 9.9.9.9 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-localin" 
sudo iptables -t mangle -A OUTPUT       -s 9.9.9.9 -j LOG --log-prefix="vrf-test-localout" 
admin@ubuntu:~/vrftcpdump$

配置vrftest接口地址为9.9.9.9/24

admin@ubuntu:~/vrftcpdump$ sudo ip addr add 9.9.9.9/24 dev vrftest           
admin@ubuntu:~/vrftcpdump$ sudo ping 9.9.9.9 -I vrftest -c 1             
PING 9.9.9.9 (9.9.9.9) from 9.9.9.9 vrftest: 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 9.9.9.9: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.050 ms

--- 9.9.9.9 ping statistics ---
1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.050/0.050/0.050/0.000 ms
admin@ubuntu:~/vrftcpdump$

查看log

Nov 20 22:13:41 ubuntu kernel: [186374.589186] vrf-test-localoutIN= OUT=vrftest SRC=9.9.9.9 DST=9.9.9.9 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=39425 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=34815 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 22:13:41 ubuntu kernel: [186374.589192] vrf-test-postroutingIN= OUT=vrftest SRC=9.9.9.9 DST=9.9.9.9 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=39425 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=34815 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 22:13:41 ubuntu kernel: [186374.589202] vrf-test-preroutingIN=vrftest OUT= MAC=ca:f9:f0:37:4c:6c:ca:f9:f0:37:4c:6c:08:00 SRC=9.9.9.9 DST=9.9.9.9 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=39425 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=34815 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 22:13:41 ubuntu kernel: [186374.589204] vrf-test-localinIN=vrftest OUT= MAC=ca:f9:f0:37:4c:6c:ca:f9:f0:37:4c:6c:08:00 SRC=9.9.9.9 DST=9.9.9.9 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=39425 DF PROTO=ICMP TYPE=8 CODE=0 ID=34815 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 22:13:41 ubuntu kernel: [186374.589210] vrf-test-localoutIN= OUT=vrftest SRC=9.9.9.9 DST=9.9.9.9 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=39426 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=34815 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 22:13:41 ubuntu kernel: [186374.589211] vrf-test-postroutingIN= OUT=vrftest SRC=9.9.9.9 DST=9.9.9.9 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=39426 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=34815 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 22:13:41 ubuntu kernel: [186374.589215] vrf-test-preroutingIN=vrftest OUT= MAC=ca:f9:f0:37:4c:6c:ca:f9:f0:37:4c:6c:08:00 SRC=9.9.9.9 DST=9.9.9.9 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=39426 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=34815 SEQ=1 
Nov 20 22:13:41 ubuntu kernel: [186374.589217] vrf-test-localinIN=vrftest OUT= MAC=ca:f9:f0:37:4c:6c:ca:f9:f0:37:4c:6c:08:00 SRC=9.9.9.9 DST=9.9.9.9 LEN=84 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=39426 PROTO=ICMP TYPE=0 CODE=0 ID=34815 SEQ=1

从log可以看出:

请求报文经过的hook点顺序如下:

序号hook点输入接口输出接口
1OUTPUTvrftest
2POSTROUTINGvrftest
3PREROUTINGvrftest
4INPUTvrftest

应答报文经过的hook点顺序如下:

序号hook点输入接口输出接口
1OUTPUTvrftest
2POSTROUTINGvrftest
3PREROUTINGvrftest
4INPUTvrftest

环回请求和应答是一样的。

总结

  • linux内核支持VRF后,报文会两次进入PREROUTING节点,第一次是原始接口,第二次是原始接口依附的vrf主接口。
  • linux内核支持VRF后,本机输出的报文,先以vrf接口作为输出接口经过OUTPUT和POSTROUTING节点,然后再以真实出去的接口经过OUPUT和POSTROUTING节点。
  • 本机报文进行环回时,与没有VRF的环境是一样的。

推荐学习:《linux视频教程

以上就是一文详解Linux netfilter与VRF及其总结的详细内容,更多请关注php中文网其它相关文章!

php中文网最新课程二维码

声明:本文转载于:segmentfault,如有侵犯,请联系admin@php.cn删除

  • 相关标签:Linux netfilter
  • 相关文章

    相关视频


    网友评论

    文明上网理性发言,请遵守 新闻评论服务协议

    我要评论
  • 专题推荐

    作者信息

    藏色散人

    好好学习天天向上!

    最近文章
    php.ini如何设置转义938
    php system 不执行怎么办661
    laravel怎么去掉server.php929
    推荐视频教程
  • Linux开发视频教程Linux开发视频教程
  • Linux负载均衡视频教程Linux负载均衡视频教程
  • Python+人工智能全栈工程师(Linux基础篇)Python+人工智能全栈工程师(Linux基础篇)
  • Linux入门级实战课程Linux入门级实战课程
  • 视频教程分类