多实例安装01【推荐】 - [ MySql参考手册 ] - 在线原生手册 - php中文网
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mysql的多实例有两种方式可以实现,两种方式各有利弊。

第一种是使用多个配置文件启动不同的进程来实现多实例,这种方式的优势逻辑简单,配置简单,缺点是管理起来不太方便。

环境介绍:
mysql 版本:5.1.59
操作系统:Centos 5.5~5.6
mysql实例数:3个
实例占用端口分别为:3306、3307、3308

必要软件包

yum -y install ncurses-devel gcc gcc-c++ gcc-g77 autoconf automake zlib* fiex* libxml* libmcrypt* libtool-ltdl-devel* libtool make

创建mysql用户

/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql -s /sbin/nologin

编译安装MySQL

cd /usr/local/src/mysql-5.1.59

./configure \
'--prefix=/usr/local/mysql' \
'--with-charset=utf8' \
'--with-extra-charsets=complex' \
'--with-pthread' \
'--enable-thread-safe-client' \
'--with-ssl' \
'--with-client-ldflags=-all-static' \
'--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static' \
'--with-plugins=partition,innobase,blackhole,myisam,innodb_plugin,heap,archive' \
'--enable-shared' '--enable-assembler'
# 接着执行编译
make && make install

初始化数据库

/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data/3306/data --user=mysql
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data/3307/data --user=mysql
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data/3308/data --user=mysql

*为什么要初始化数据库? *
答:初始化的主要目的就是创建基础的数据库文件,例如生成MySQL库,表等.

授权数据库权限给mysql用户

setfacl -m u:mysql:rwx -R /usr/local/mysql 
setfacl -m d:u:mysql:rwx -R /usr/local/mysql

第一种使用多个配置文件启动多个不同进程的情况:

创建3个实例的配置文件

3306端口的配置文件

vim /usr/local/mysql/data/3306/my.cnf
[client]
port = 3306
socket = /usr/local/mysql/data/3306/mysql.sock
[mysqld]
datadir = /usr/local/mysql/data/3306/data/
skip-name-resolve
lower_case_table_names=1
innodb_file_per_table=1
port = 3306
socket = /usr/local/mysql/data/3306/mysql.sock
back_log = 50
max_connections = 300
max_connect_errors = 1000
table_open_cache = 2048
max_allowed_packet = 16M
binlog_cache_size = 2M
max_heap_table_size = 64M
sort_buffer_size = 2M
join_buffer_size = 2M
thread_cache_size = 64
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 64M
query_cache_limit = 2M
ft_min_word_len = 4
default-storage-engine = innodb
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = REPEATABLE-READ
tmp_table_size = 64M
log-bin=mysql-bin
binlog_format=mixed
slow_query_log
long_query_time = 1
server-id = 3306
key_buffer_size = 8M
read_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 200M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 8
innodb_thread_concurrency = 16
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 512M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 60
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 256M
[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
prompt=\\u@\\d \\R:\\m>
[myisamchk]
key_buffer_size = 512M
sort_buffer_size = 512M
read_buffer = 8M
write_buffer = 8M
[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout
[mysqld_safe]
log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/3306/mysql_error3306.err
pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/3306/mysqld.pid
open-files-limit = 8192

3307端口的配置文件

vim /usr/local/mysql/data/3307/my.cnf
[client]
port = 3307
socket = /usr/local/mysql/data/3307/mysql.sock
[mysqld]
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data/3307/data/
skip-name-resolve
lower_case_table_names=1
innodb_file_per_table=1
port = 3307
socket = /usr/local/mysql/data/3307/mysql.sock
back_log = 50
max_connections = 300
max_connect_errors = 1000
table_open_cache = 2048
max_allowed_packet = 16M
binlog_cache_size = 2M
max_heap_table_size = 64M
sort_buffer_size = 2M
join_buffer_size = 2M
thread_cache_size = 64
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 64M
query_cache_limit = 2M
ft_min_word_len = 4
default-storage-engine = innodb
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = REPEATABLE-READ
tmp_table_size = 64M
log-bin=mysql-bin
binlog_format=mixed
slow_query_log
long_query_time = 1
server-id = 3307
key_buffer_size = 8M
read_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 200M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 8
innodb_thread_concurrency = 16
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 512M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 60
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 256M
[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
prompt=\\u@\\d \\R:\\m>
[myisamchk]
key_buffer_size = 512M
sort_buffer_size = 512M
read_buffer = 8M
write_buffer = 8M
[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout
[mysqld_safe]
log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/3307/mysql_error3307.err
pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/3307/mysqld.pid
open-files-limit = 8192

3308端口的配置文件

vim /usr/local/mysql/data/3308/my.cnf
[client]
port = 3308
socket = /usr/local/mysql/data/3308/mysql.sock
[mysqld]
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data/3308/data
skip-name-resolve
lower_case_table_names=1
innodb_file_per_table=1
port = 3308
socket = /usr/local/mysql/data/3308/mysql.sock
back_log = 50
max_connections = 300
max_connect_errors = 1000
table_open_cache = 2048
max_allowed_packet = 16M
binlog_cache_size = 2M
max_heap_table_size = 64M
sort_buffer_size = 2M
join_buffer_size = 2M
thread_cache_size = 64
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 64M
query_cache_limit = 2M
ft_min_word_len = 4
default-storage-engine = innodb
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = REPEATABLE-READ
tmp_table_size = 64M
log-bin=mysql-bin
binlog_format=mixed
slow_query_log
long_query_time = 1
server-id = 3308
key_buffer_size = 8M
read_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 200M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 8
innodb_thread_concurrency = 16
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 512M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 60
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 256M
[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
prompt=\\u@\\d \\R:\\m>
[myisamchk]
key_buffer_size = 512M
sort_buffer_size = 512M
read_buffer = 8M
write_buffer = 8M
[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout
[mysqld_safe]
log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/3308/mysql_error3308.err
pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/3308/mysqld.pid
open-files-limit = 8192

创建自启动文件

vim /usr/local/mysql/data/3306/mysqld , 3306的启动文件

#!/bin/bash
mysql_port=3306
mysql_username="admin"
mysql_password="password"
function_start_mysql(){
printf "Starting MySQL...\n"
/bin/bash /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 /dev/null &
}
function_stop_mysql(){
printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S  /usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/mysql.sock shutdown
}
function_restart_mysql()
{
printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"
function_stop_mysql
function_start_mysql
}
function_kill_mysql()
{
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
}
case $1 in
start)
function_start_mysql;;
stop)
function_stop_mysql;;
kill)
function_kill_mysql;;
restart)
function_stop_mysql
function_start_mysql;;
*)
echo "Usage:  /usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/mysqld {start|stop|restart|kill}";;
esac

vim /usr/local/mysql/data/3307/mysqld , 3307的启动文件

#!/bin/bash
mysql_port=3307
mysql_username="admin"
mysql_password="password"
function_start_mysql()
{
printf "Starting MySQL...\n"
/bin/bash /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 /dev/null &
}
function_stop_mysql()
{
printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/mysql.sock shutdown
}
function_restart_mysql()
{
printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"
function_stop_mysql
function_start_mysql
}
function_kill_mysql()
{
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
}
case $1 in
start)
function_start_mysql;;
stop)
function_stop_mysql;;
kill)
function_kill_mysql;;
restart)
function_stop_mysql
function_start_mysql;;
*)
echo "Usage: /usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/mysqld {start|stop|restart|kill}";;
esac

vim /usr/local/mysql/data/3308/mysqld , 3308的启动文件

#!/bin/bash
mysql_port=3308
mysql_username="admin"
mysql_password="password"
function_start_mysql()
{
printf "Starting MySQL...\n"
/bin/bash /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 /dev/null &
}
function_stop_mysql()
{
printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/mysql.sock shutdown
}
function_restart_mysql()
{
printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"
function_stop_mysql
function_start_mysql
}
function_kill_mysql()
{
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
}
case $1 in
start)
function_start_mysql;;
stop)
function_stop_mysql;;
kill)
function_kill_mysql;;
restart)
function_stop_mysql
function_start_mysql;;
*)
echo "Usage: /usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/mysqld {start|stop|restart|kill}";;
esac

上面的三个启动文件中都包含了数据库密码等敏感信息,所以为了安全考虑,将权限改为只有root可以操作,执行下面的命令

find /usr/local/mysql/data -name 'mysqld'|xargs chmod 700 && find /usr/local/mysql/data -name 'mysqld'|xargs setfacl -b && find /usr/local/mysql/data -name 'mysqld'|xargs chown root.root

启动3306 3307 3308的MySQL

cd /usr/local/mysql/data && ./3306/mysqld start
cd /usr/local/mysql/data && ./3307/mysqld start
cd /usr/local/mysql/data && ./3308/mysqld start

启动报错
151016 06:36:48 mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /usr/local/mysql/data/3307/data/
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld: File './mysql-bin.~rec~' not found (Errcode: 28)
151016  6:36:48 [ERROR] MYSQL_BIN_LOG::open_purge_index_file failed to open register  file.
151016  6:36:48 [ERROR] MYSQL_BIN_LOG::open_index_file failed to sync the index file.
151016  6:36:48 [ERROR] Aborting
151016  6:36:48 [Note] /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld: Shutdown complete
151016 06:36:48 mysqld_safe mysqld from pid file /usr/local/mysql/data/3307/mysqld.pid ended

错误代码 (Errcode: 28)

产生错误原因(磁盘空间已满)

# df -Th
文件系统      类型    容量  已用 可用 已用% 挂载点
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00
              ext3    8.9G  8.4G     0 100% /
/dev/sda1     ext3     99M   12M   82M  13% /boot
tmpfs        tmpfs   1014M     0 1014M   0% /dev/shm

解决方案
释放硬盘空间,重新启动即可。

将mysql的bin加入到path中

ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql /usr/local/sbin/mysql
cd ~
#或者,把path添加到当前用户目录的bashrc中,如果需要全局设定,请修改`/etc/profile` vi .bashrc #加入以下内容 
PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH 
source /etc/profile

修改默认root密码(指定sock文件)

mysqladmin -uroot password 'aaaaaa' -S /usr/local/mysql/data/3306/mysql.sock 
mysqladmin -uroot password 'aaaaaa' -S /usr/local/mysql/data/3307/mysql.sock 
mysqladmin -uroot password 'aaaaaa' -S /usr/local/mysql/data/3308/mysql.sock

##登录数据库增加进程关闭admin(password)账号

/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -uroot -ppassword -S /data/dbdata_3306/mysql.sock
GRANT SHUTDOWN ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
flush privileges;

本机登录指定sock登录

mysql -uroot -paaaaaa -S /usr/local/mysql/data/3306/mysql.sock 
mysql -uroot -paaaaaa -S /usr/local/mysql/data/3307/mysql.sock 
mysql -uroot -paaaaaa -S /usr/local/mysql/data/3308/mysql.sock

后期增加一个实例的情况

初始化数据库

/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data/3309/data --user=mysql

新建一个默认配置文件

vim /usr/local/mysql/data/3309/my.cnf
[client]
port = 3309
socket = /usr/local/mysql/data/3309/mysql.sock
[mysqld]
datadir = /usr/local/mysql/data/3309/data/
skip-name-resolve
lower_case_table_names=1
innodb_file_per_table=1
port = 3309
socket = /usr/local/mysql/data/3309/mysql.sock
back_log = 50
max_connections = 300
max_connect_errors = 1000
table_open_cache = 2048
max_allowed_packet = 16M
binlog_cache_size = 2M
max_heap_table_size = 64M
sort_buffer_size = 2M
join_buffer_size = 2M
thread_cache_size = 64
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 64M
query_cache_limit = 2M
ft_min_word_len = 4
default-storage-engine = innodb
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = REPEATABLE-READ
tmp_table_size = 64M
log-bin=mysql-bin
binlog_format=mixed
slow_query_log
long_query_time = 1
server-id = 3309
key_buffer_size = 8M
read_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 200M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 8
innodb_thread_concurrency = 16
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 512M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 60
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 256M
[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
prompt=\\u@\\d \\R:\\m>
[myisamchk]
key_buffer_size = 512M
sort_buffer_size = 512M
read_buffer = 8M
write_buffer = 8M
[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout
[mysqld_safe]
log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/3309/mysql_error3309.err
pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/3309/mysqld.pid
open-files-limit = 8192

创建自启动文件

#!/bin/bash
mysql_port=3309
mysql_username="admin"
mysql_password="password"
function_start_mysql()
{
printf "Starting MySQL...\n"
/bin/bash /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
}
function_stop_mysql()
{
printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/mysql.sock shutdown
}
function_restart_mysql()
{
printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"
function_stop_mysql
function_start_mysql
}
function_kill_mysql()
{
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
}
case $1 in
start)
function_start_mysql;;
stop)
function_stop_mysql;;
kill)
function_kill_mysql;;
restart)
function_stop_mysql
function_start_mysql;;
*)
echo "Usage: /usr/local/mysql/data/${mysql_port}/mysqld {start|stop|restart|kill}";;
esac

授权启动文件可执行

chmod a+x /usr/local/mysql/data/3309/mysqld

相关博文参考: 
mysql多实例的配置和管理


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